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Cattle - BVD, IBR, EBL

BVD (bovine viral diarrhoea), IBR/IPV (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis/infectious pustular vulvovaginitis) and EBL (enzootic bovine leukosis) are viral diseases in cattle.

All milk and blood samples tested in 2013 were negative for antibodies against IBR/IPV and EBL. Bovine virus diarrhoea virus was not detected in any of the herds sampled in 2013.

Aim
Document freedom from these infections in Norway, and contribute to maintain this situation.

Background
IBR/IPV is caused by bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1). The last clinical outbreaks of IPV in Norway was in the early 1960s and in 1993, animals in one single herd at the west coast were found seropositive after primary testing of bulk milk samples. Later, BHV-1 infection has not been demonstrated in Norway. EFTA Surveillance Authority (ESA) has recognised Norway as free from IBR/IPV since 1994.

EBL is caused by bovine leukaemia virus (BLV), in the genus retrovirus. Most infections are subclinical, but older cattle often develop persistent lymphocytosis, and a smaller proportion develops lymphosarcomas in internal organs. The disease had never been reported in Norway until antibodies against BLV were detected in eight dairy herds in 1995. No new herds have tested positive since 1997. Free status from EBL was granted to Norway by the EFTA Surveillance Authority in 2007.

BVD is caused by bovine virus diarrhoea virus (BVDV) in the genus pestivirus. The virus is the cause of mucosal disease and hemorrhagic syndrome, but the most important manifestations of disease are in pregnant animals (embryonic death, abortion and congenital defects). Persistently infected calves may be born and serve as the main reservoir of infection to other animals. An eradication programme started in 1992 and the number of herds with restrictions decreased from 2950 in 1994 to none at the end of 2006. Since 2007, the aim of the programme has been surveillance and control.

Reports